Go-HEP provides tools to interface with CERN's ROOT (Brun and Rademakers 1997) software framework and carry analyses or data acquisition from within the Go (Authors, n.d.) programming language.
Go-HEP exposes libraries to read and write common High Energy Physics (HEP) file formats (HepMC (Dobbs and Hansen 2000), LHEF (Alwall et al. 2007), SLHA (Skands and others 2004)) but, at the moment, only read interoperability is achieved with ROOT file format. Go-HEP also provides tools to carry statistical analyses in the form of 1-dim and 2-dim histograms, 1-dim and 2-dim scatters and n-tuples. Go-HEP can also graphically represent these results, leveraging the Gonum (T. G. authors, n.d.) plotting library.
Writing analyses in HEP involves many steps and one needs a few tools to successfully carry out such an endeavour. But - at minima - one needs to be able to read (and possibly write) ROOT files to be able to interoperate with the rest of the HEP community or to insert one's work into an already existing analysis pipeline.
Go-HEP provides this necessary interoperability layer, in the Go programming language. This allows physicists to leverage the great concurrency primitives of Go, together with the surrounding tooling and software engineering ecosystem of Go, to implement physics analyses.
In this section, we list the packages that Go-HEP provides together with a short description.
go-hep/rootio provides read access to data stored in ROOT files.
rootio is a pure-Go implementation of the ROOT file format, reimplementing from scratch the decoding and interpretation of ROOT's low-level file blocks (
TFile) together with file metadata, such as
TStreamerElement that allow to serialize and deserialize C++ class' instances. 1- and 2-dimensional histograms (
TH2x) can be extracted from ROOT files using
rootio, as well as n-tuple data (
TTree). Go-HEP can also convert ROOT histograms into YODA's (T. Y. authors, n.d.) or Go-HEP's native format.
go-hep/rootio is the gateway to the wealth of data generated, simulated and acquired by LHC experiments.
go-hep/rootio can only read ROOT data. Work is in progress to also create ROOT-compatible data files.
go-hep/fmom package provides different representations of Lorentz vectors (4-components vectors that represent the momentum and energy of particles.)
go-hep/fmom currently implements the
(inv-pt, cot-theta, phi, m) and
(pt, eta, phi, m) Lorentz vector representations and operations that apply on these 4-vectors.
go-hep/hbook provides 1- and 2-dimensional histograms, 1-dim profiles and 2-dim scatters, for the statistical representation of variables. Notably, histograms allow to retrieve the mean, standard deviation, standard error and the sum of weights of a given variable.
go-hep/hbook/ntup provides a way to create, open and iterate over n-tuple data: rows of records.
ntup can be seen as a database of HEP event data. Indeed,
ntup is built on Go's
database/sql package that allows to interact with various databases via plugins (
go-hep/hbook/ntup/ntupcsv is a convenience package that allows to load a
CSV file in memory and work on it as a database.
go-hep/hepevt are packages used to represent HEP event interactions: they carry informations about a fundamental event interaction (incoming partons) and the decay chains, down to the hadronization and stable final particles.
hepevt is the implementation of the old
FORTRAN standard, while
hepmc is the new
hepmc files are usually the result of a Monte-Carlo generator where the simulation of physics processes (branching ratios, hadronization, ...) has been implemented. Go-HEP doesn't currently provide Monte-Carlo generators.
heppdt provides access to the HEP particle data table: a catalog of informations (mass, width, ...) about all particles of the Standard Model (and beyond the Standard Model.)
lhef (Alwall et al. 2007) and
slha (Skands and others 2004) are exchange format files for Monte-Carlo generators.
fwk is a pure-Go, concurrent implementation of a typical HEP control framework. Control frameworks are used in HEP to collect the acquired data from e.g. the LHC experiments and channel it through the various reconstruction algorithms. Control frameworks are the angular stone of HEP experiments, allowing to organize and schedule the algorithms that identify and reconstruct electrons, muons, etc.. from electronic signals coming from the detectors.
go-hep/fwk leverages the concurrency primitives of Go to provide an easy to use toolkit, ready to harness the power of multicore machines.
go-hep/fwk parallelizes work at the event level, allowing to work on multiple events at a time.
go-hep/fwk also parallelizes work at the sub-event level, scheduling in parallel algorithms that don't need inputs from each other.
go-hep/fwk doesn't provide extra tools to perform parallel work at the sub-algorithm level, leaving the algorithms' implementors with all the tools from the Go language (e.g.
fads is a Fast Detector Simulation toolkit. It uses
fwk to provide a concurrency-friendly toolkit that performs so-called fast-simulation of detectors, with components for:
go-hep/fads is a pure-Go reimplementation of a
C++ program called Delphes (Favereau et al. 2014).
go-hep/fastjet is a pure-Go reimplementation of a
C++ library called FastJet (Cacciari, Salam, and Soyez 2012).
lcio implements read/write access to the binary file format developed for the Linear Collider community. It is a pure-Go reimplementation of a C++ library of the same name (T. L. authors, n.d.).
sio is the low-level access to this binary file format,
lcio implements the event data model that has been used by the LC community.
go-hep/rio is a fork of
lcio to provide 64b indexing and thus support >4Gb files.
hplot is a package providing building blocks for creating plots. It leverages the Gonum (T. G. authors, n.d.) plotting package to create HEP oriented plots, using
go-hep/hbook data as input.
hplot can generate publication quality plots in PNG, SVG, PDF or EPS formats.
hplot also provides a work-in-progress interactive shell with an OpenGL backend (on Linux or macOS; Windows will use the
win32 API) to display plots.
Go-HEP also provides a few commands that use Go-HEP packages.
root2npy uses the
go-hep/rootio package to convert n-tuple data stored in ROOT files into NumPy (Kern, n.d.) array data files. This command does not need any ROOT installation nor any NumPy installation: everything has been implemented in pure-Go from first principles. This is useful to quickly convert data and interoperate with analyses' pipelines that are mostly python based.
root2yoda command converts ROOT files containing histogram values into their YODA equivalent, saved in a YODA ASCII file.
root-ls command allows to quickly inspect and display the content of a ROOT file from the shell.
root-srv command launches a local web server that can be used to inspect graphically ROOT files, displaying histograms and n-tuple data.
Alwall, J., A. Ballestrero, P. Bartalini, S. Belov, E. Boos, A. Buckley, J.M. Butterworth, et al. 2007. “A Standard Format for Les Houches Event Files.” Computer Physics Communications 176: 300–304. doi:10.1016/j.cpc.2006.11.010.
Authors, The Go. n.d. “The Go Programming Language.” https://golang.org.
authors, The Gonum. n.d. “Gonum: Consistent, Composable and Comprehensible Scientific Code.” https://gonum.org.
authors, The LCIO. n.d. “Linear Collider I/O.” https://github.com/iLCSoft/LCIO.
authors, The YODA. n.d. “YODA: Yet More Objects for Data Analysis.” https://yoda.hepforge.org.
Brun, R., and F. Rademakers. 1997. “ROOT: An object oriented data analysis framework.” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A389: 81–86. doi:10.1016/S0168-9002(97)00048-X.
Cacciari, Matteo, Gavin P. Salam, and Gregory Soyez. 2012. “FastJet User Manual.” Eur. Phys. J. C72: 1896. doi:10.1140/epjc/s10052-012-1896-2.
Dobbs, M, and J B Hansen. 2000. “The HepMC C++ Monte Carlo Event Record for High Energy Physics,” no. ATL-SOFT-2000-001 (June). CERN. http://cds.cern.ch/record/684090.
Favereau, J. de, C. Delaere, P. Demin, A. Giammanco, V. Lemaître, A. Mertens, and M. Selvaggi. 2014. “DELPHES 3, A modular framework for fast simulation of a generic collider experiment.” JHEP 02: 057. doi:10.1007/JHEP02(2014)057.
Kern, Robert. n.d. “A Simple File Format for Numpy Arrays.” https://docs.scipy.org/doc/numpy/neps/npy-format.html.
Skands, Peter Z., and others. 2004. “SUSY Les Houches accord: Interfacing SUSY spectrum calculators, decay packages, and event generators.” JHEP 07: 036. doi:10.1088/1126-6708/2004/07/036.